Russian olive USDA PLANTS Symbol: ELAN
U.S. Nativity: Exotic
Habit: Shrub or Subshrub Hardwood Trees
Elaeagnus angustifolia L.

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Taxonomic Rank: Magnoliopsida: Rhamnales: Elaeagnaceae
Synonym(s): Russian olive, oleaster
Native Range: Temp. & trop. Asia, Europe (GRIN);

Russian olive is a deciduous tree or shrub growing to 35 ft. (10.6 m) in height. Russian olive is easily recognized by the silvery, scaly underside of the leaves and slightly thorny stems. Leaves are alternate and 1/2 in. (1.3 cm) wide. Small, yellowish flowers or hard green to yellow fruits are abundant and occur on clusters near the stems in the spring and summer. Russian olive invades old fields, woodland edges, and other disturbed areas. It can form a dense shrub layer which displaces native species and closes open areas. Russian olive is native to Europe and western Asia and was introduced into North America in the late 1800s. Since then it has been widely planted for wildlife habitat, mine reclamation, and shelterbelts.

Identification, Biology, Control and Management Resources

Selected Images from Invasive.orgView All Images at Invasive.org


Tree(s); habitat
Robert Vidéki, Doronicum Kft., Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Fruit(s);
Barry Rice, sarracenia.com, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Fruit(s); Summer
Patrick Breen, Oregon State University, Bugwood.org
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Flower(s);
Joseph Berger, , Bugwood.org
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Feature(s); Stem. Summer
Patrick Breen, Oregon State University, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
John M. Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Bugwood.org
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Foliage; Spring
Patrick Breen, Oregon State University, Bugwood.org
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Flower(s);
Paul Wray, Iowa State University, Bugwood.org
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Fruit(s);
Paul Wray, Iowa State University, Bugwood.org
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Foliage;
Paul Wray, Iowa State University, Bugwood.org
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Foliage;
Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org
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Twig(s)/Shoot(s);
Paul Wray, Iowa State University, Bugwood.org
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Bark; Winter
Patrick Breen, Oregon State University, Bugwood.org
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Seed(s);
Steve Hurst, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
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Plant(s);
Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org
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Plant(s);
Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Infestation; Fish Lake National Forest, Utah
J. Scott Peterson, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
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Infestation;
Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org
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Infestation;
Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s);
David J. Moorhead, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org
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Infestation;
David J. Moorhead, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

EDDMapS Distribution:
This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts and records obtained from USDA Plants Database. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
 


State(s) Where Reported invasive.
Based on state level agency and organization lists of invasive plants from WeedUS database.

U.S. National Parks where reported invasive:
Badlands National Park (South Dakota)
Blue Ridge Parkway (North Carolina)
Colonial National Historical Park (Virginia)
Dinosaur National Monument (Colorado)
Glen Canyon National Recreation Area (Utah)
Grand Canyon National Park (Arizona)
Lake Meredith National Recreation Area (Texas)
Scotts Bluff National Monument (Nebraska)
Theodore Roosevelt National Park (North Dakota)



Invasive Listing Sources:
California Invasive Plant Council
City of Ann Arbor Michigan Parks and Recreation
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, 1994.
Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection
Faith Campbell, 1998
Hoffman, R. & K. Kearns, Eds. 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. Wisconsin Dept. Natural Resources, Bureau of Endangered Resources. Madison, Wisconsin. 102pp.
Invasive Plant Council of New York State
Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
John Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Survey of TNC Preserves, 1995.
Maryland Cooperative Extension Service.  2003. Invasive Plant Control in Maryland. Home and Garden Information Center, Home and Garden Mimeo HG88. 4 pp.
Maryland Department of Natural Resources, 1994
Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2005
New Jersey Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry, 2004
Pacific Northwest Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1998
Pennypack Ecological Restoration Trust, Pennsylvania.
Reichard, Sarah. 1994.  Assessing the potential of invasiveness in woody plants introduced in North America. University of Washington Ph.D. dissertation.
South Carolina Exotic Pest Plant Council
Tatyana Livschultz, Pennsylvania survey of invasive plants,
Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council
Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation
Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, 2009